The Shabbath over the Centuries

Short description of content

1st Century
Institution of the Shabbath

    And on the seventh day Elohiym ended His work that He had done and He rested on the seventh day from all His work that He had done. Then Elohiym blessed the seventh day and consecrated it because in it He rested from all His work that Elohiym had created and made. - B'ereshiyth (Genesis) 2:1-3 RNV


    "And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the gathering on the shabbath day, and stood up to read." - Loukas 4:16
    "And, behold, one came and said to him, "Good Master, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?" And He said unto him, "If you will enter into life, keep the commandments." - MattiythYahuw (Matthew) 19:16,17
    "But you pray that your flight is not in winter, neither on the shabbath day." - MattiythYahuw 24, 20.

Yahushua asked his disciples to pray that in the flight from the doomed city of Yeruwshalom they would not have to flee on the Shabbath day. This flight took place in 70 CE (40 years after His Passion).

His Followers

    "And they returned and prepared spices and ointments and rested the shabbath day according to the commandment." - Loukas (Luke) 23:56.

Sha'uwl (Paul)

    "And Sha'uwl, as was his manner, went in unto them and three Shabbath days reasoned with them out of the Scriptures" Acts 17:2

Sha'uwl and Gentiles

    "And when the Yahudiym (Jews) were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next Shabbath. And the next Shabbath came almost the whole city together to hear the Word of Yahuwah." - Acts 13:42, 44.

Here we find Gentiles in a Gentile city gathering on the Shabbath. It was not a synagogue meeting in verse 44, for it says almost the whole city came together, verse 42 says they asked to hear the message the "next Shabbath."

And note this point: Scripture does not say it is the "old ‘Jewish’ Shabbath that was passed away," but the Spirit of Yahuwah, writing the Book of Acts some 30 years after the Passion, calls it "the next Shabbath."

Yahuchanan (John)

    "I was in the Spirit on the Sovereign's day." Rev.1:10 (Mk 2:28, Yasha’Yahuw (Isaiah) 58:13, Ex.20:10, Clearly show the Shabbath to be the Sovereign's day).


    "There is not any city of the Grecians, nor any of the Barbarians, nor any nation whatsoever, whither our custom of resting on the seventh day hath not come!" M'Clatchie, "Notes and Queries on China and Japan" (edited by Dennys), Vol 4, Nos 7, 8, p.100.


    Declares the seventh day to be a festival, not of this or of that city, but of the universe. M'Clatchie, "Notes and Queries," Vol. 4, 99

2nd Century
Early Christians
"The primitive Christians had a great veneration for the Shabbath, and spent the day in devotion and sermons. And it is not to be doubted but they derived this practice from the Delegates themselves, as appears by several scriptures to the purpose." "Dialogues on the Lord's Day," p. 189. London: 1701, By Dr. T.H. Morer (A Church of England divine).

Early Christians
"...The Shabbath was a strong tie which united them with the life of the whole people, and in keeping the Shabbath holy they followed not only the example but also the command of Jesus." "Geschichte des Sonntags," pp.13, 14

2nd Century Christians

    "The Gentile Christians observed also the Shabbath," Gieseler's "Church History," Vol.1, ch. 2, par. 30, 93.

Early Christians
"The primitive Christians did keep the Shabbath of the Jews; . . .therefore the Christians, for a long time together, did keep their conventions upon the Shabbath, in which some portions of the law were read: and this continued till the time of the Laodicean council." "The Whole Works" of Jeremy Taylor, Vol. IX,p. 416 (R. Heber's Edition, Vol XII, p. 416).

Early Christians
"It is certain that the ancient Shabbath did remain and was observed (together with the celebration of the Lord's day) by the Christians of the East Church, above three hundred years after our Saviour's death." "A Learned Treatise of the Shabbath," p. 77

[Note: By the "Lord's day" here the writer means Sunday and not the true Shabbath," which the scripture says is the Shabbath. This quotation shows Sunday coming into use in the early centuries soon after the death of the Delegates. Paul the Delegate foretold a great "falling away" from the Truth that would take place soon after his death.]

2nd, 3rd, 4th Centuries
"From the delegates' time until the council of Laodicea, which was about the year 364, the holy observance of the Jews' Shabbath continued, as may be proved out of many authors: yea, notwithstanding the decree of the council against it." "Sunday a Shabbath." John Ley, p.163. London: 1640.

3rd Century
Mitsrayim (Egypt) (Oxyrhynchus Papyri) (200-250 A.D.)
"Except ye make the shabbath a real shabbath (sabbatize the Shabbath," Greek), ye shall not see the Father." "The Oxyrhynchus Papyri," pt,1, p.3, Logion 2, verso 4-11 (London Offices of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1898).

Early Christians
"Thou shalt observe the Shabbath, on account of Him who ceased from His work of creation, but ceased not from His work of providence: it is a rest for meditation of the law, not for idleness of the hands." "The Anti-Nicene Fathers," Vol 7,p. 413. From "Constitutions of the Holy Delegates," a document of the 3rd and 4th Centuries.

Africa (Alexandria) Origen
"After the festival of the unceasing sacrifice (the crucifixion) is put the second festival of the Shabbath, and it is fitting for whoever is righteous among the saints to keep also the festival of the Shabbath. There remaineth therefore a sabbatismus, that is, a keeping of the Shabbath, to the people of God (Hebrews 4:9)." "Homily on Numbers 23," par.4, in Migne, "Patrologia Graeca," Vol. 12,cols. 749, 750.

Yisra'el to India (Chusrch of the Hast)
As early as A.D. 225 there existed large bishoprics or conferences of the Church of the East (Shabbath-keeping) stretching from Palestine (sic)to India. Mingana, "Early Spread of Christianity." Vol.10, p. 460.

India (Buddhist Controversy), 220 CE)
The Kushan Dynasty of North India called a famous council of Buddhist priests at Vaisalia to bring uniformity among the Buddhist monks on the observance of their weekly Shabbath. Some had been so impressed by the writings of the Old Testament that they had begun to keep holy the Shabbath. - Lloyd, "The Creed of Half Japan," p. 23.

Early Christians
"The seventh-day Shabbath was...solemnised by Christ, the Delegates, and primitive Christians, till the Laodicean Council did in manner quite abolish the observations of it." "Dissertation on the Lord's Day," pp. 33, 34

Fourth Century
Italy and and East
"It was the practice generally of the Easterne Churches; and some churches of the west...For in the Church of Millaine (Milan); seems the Saturday was held in a farre esteeme... Not that the Easterne Churches, or any of the rest which observed that day, were inclined to Iudaisme (Judaism); but that they came together on the Shabbath day, to worship Iesus (Jesus) Christ the Lord of the Shabbath." "History of the Shabbath" (original spelling retained), Part 2, par. 5, pp.73, 74. London: 1636. Dr. Heylyn.

Orient and Most of the World
"The ancient Christians were very careful in the observance of Saturday, or the seventh day . . . It is plain that all the Oriental churches, and the greatest part of the world, observed the Shabbath as a festival...Athanasius likewise tells us that they held religious assembles on the Shabbath, not because they were infected with Judaism, but to worship Jesus, the Lord of the Shabbath, Epiphanius says the same." "Antiquities of the Christian Church," Vol.II Book XX, chap. 3, sec.1, 66. 1137,1138.

"In the last half of that century St. Ambrose of Milan stated officially that the Abyssinian bishop, Museus, had 'traveled almost everywhere in the country of the Seres' (China). For more than seventeen centuries the Abyssinian Church continued to sanctify Saturday as the holy day of the fourth commandment." Ambrose, DeMoribus, Brachmanorium Opera Ominia, 1132, found in Migne, Patrologia Latima, Vol.17, pp.1131,1132.

Arabia, Persia, India, China
"Mingana proves that in 370 A.D. Abyssinian Christianity (a Shabbath keeping church) was so popular that its famous director, Musacus, travelled extensively in the East promoting the church in Arabia, Persia, India and China." "Truth Triumphanat," p.308 (Footnote 27).

"Ambrose, the celebrated bishop of Milan, said that when he was in Milan he observed Saturday, but when in Rome observed Sunday. This gave rise to the proverb, 'When you are in Rome, do as Rome does.'" Heylyn, "The History of the Shabbath" (1612 CE)

Spain-Council Elvira (CE 305)
Canon 26 of the Council of Elvira reveals that the Church of Spain at that time kept Saturday, the seventh day. "As to fasting every Shabbath: Resolved, that the error be corrected of fasting every Shabbath." This resolution of the council is in direct opposition to the policy the church at Rome had inaugurated, that of commanding Shabbath as a fast day in order to humiliate it and make it repugnant to the people.

It is a point of further interest to note that in north-eastern Spain near the city of Barcelona is a city called Sabadell, in a district originally inhabited by a people called both "Valldenses" and Sabbatati."

Persia - CE 335-375 (40 Years Persecution under Shapur II)
The popular complaint against the Christians-"They despise our sungod, they have divine services on Saturday, they desecrate the sacred the earth by burying their dead in it." Truth Triumphant," p.170.

Persia - CE 335-375
"They despise our sun-god. Did not Zorcaster, the sainted founder of our divine beliefs, institute Sunday one thousand years ago in honour of the sun and supplant the Shabbath of the Old Testament. Yet these Christians have divine services on Saturday." O'Leary, "The Syriac Church and Fathers," pp.83, 84.

Council Laodecia - CE 365
"Canon 16 - On Saturday the Gospels and other portions of the Scripture shall be read aloud." "Canon 29- Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day; but the Lord's day they shall especially honor, and as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day." Hefele's "Councils," Vol. 2, b. 6.

Fifth Century
The World
"For although almost all churches throughout the world celebrated the sacred mysteries (the Lord's Supper) on the Shabbath of every week, yet the Christians of Allexandria and at Rome, on account of some ancient tradition, refuse to do this." The footnote which accompanies the foregoing quotation explains the use of the word "Shabbath." It says: "That is, upon the Saturday. It should be observed, that Sunday is never called "the Shabbath' by the ancient Fathers and historians." Sacrates, "Ecclestical History," Book 5, chap. 22, p. 289.

"The people of Constantinople, and almost everywhere, assemble together on the Shabbath, as well as on the first day of the week, which custom is never observed at Rome or at Alexandria." Socrates, "Ecclesiastical History," Book 7, chap.19.

The World - Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (North Africa)
Augustine shows here that the Shabbath was observed in his day "in the greater part of the Christian world," and his testimony in this respect is all the more valuable because he himself was an earnest and consistent Sunday-keeper. See "Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers," 1st Series, Vol.1, pp. 353, 354.

Pope Innocent (402-417 CE)
Pope Sylvester (314-335) was the first to order the churches to fast on Saturday, and Pope Innocent (402-417) made it a binding law in the churches that obeyed him, (In order to bring the Shabbath into disfavour.) "Innocentius did ordain the Saturday or Shabbath to be always fasted." Dr. Peter Heylyn, "History of the Shabbath, Part 2, p. 44.

5th Century Christians
Down even to the fifth century the observance of the Jewish Shabbath was continued in the Christian church. "Ancient Christianity Exemplified," Lyman Coleman, ch. 26, sec. 2, p. 527.

In Jerome's day (420 CE) the devoutest Christians did ordinary work on Sunday. "Treatise of the Shabbath Day," by Dr. White, Lord Bishop of Ely, p. 219.

"Wherefore, except Vespers and Nocturns, there are no public services among them in the day except on Saturday (Shabbath) and Sunday." John Cassian, A French monk, "Institutes," Book 3, ch. 2.

"Augustine deplored the fact that in two neighbouring churches in Africa one observes the seventh-day Shabbath, another fasted on it." Dr. Peter Heylyn, "The History of the Shabbath." p. 416.

Spain (400 CE)
"Ambrose sanctified the seventh day as the Shabbath (as he himself says). Ambrose had great influence in Spain, which was also observing the Saturday Shabbath." Truth Triumphant, p. 68.

Sidonius (Speaking of King Theopdoric of the Goths, 454-526 CE)
"It is a fact that it was formerly the custom in the East to keep the Shabbath in the same manner as the Lord's day and to hold sacred assemblies: while on the other hand, the people of the West, contending for the Lord's day have neglected the celebration of the Shabbath." "Apollinaries Sidonli Epistolae," lib.1, 2; Migne, 57.

Church of the East
"Mingana proves that in 410 Isaac, supreme director of the Church of the East, held a world council,-stimulated, some think, by the trip of Musacus,-attended by eastern delegates from forty grand metrop olitan divisions. In 411 he appointed a metropolitan director for China. These churches were sanctifying the seventh day."

"There are several cities and villages in Egypt where, contrary to the usage established elsewhere, the people meet together on Shabbath evenings, and, although they have dined previously, partake of the mysteries." Sozomen. "Ecclesiastical History Book 7, ch. 119

Sixth Century
Scottish Church
"In this latter instance they seemed to have followed a custom of which we find traces in the early monastic church of Ireland by which they held Saturday to be the Shabbath on which they rested from all their labours." W.T. Skene, "Adamnan Llife of St. Columbs" 1874, p.96.

Scotland and Ireland
"We seem to see here an allusion to the custom, observed in the early monastic Church of Ireland, of keeping the day of rest on Saturday, or the Shabbath." "History of the Catholic Church in Scotland," Vol.1, p. 86, by Catholic histsorian Bellesheim.

"Having continued his labours in Scotland thirty-four years, he clearly and openly foretold his death, and on Saturday, the month of June, said to his disciple Diermit: "This day is called the Shabbath, that is the rest day, and such will it truly be to me; for it will put an end to my labours.'" "Butler's Lives of the Saints," Vol.1, A.D. 597, art. "St. Columba" p. 762

Columba (RE Dr. Butler's Description of his daeth)
The editor of the best biography of Columba says in a footnote: "Our Saturday. The custom to call the Lord's day Shabbath did not commence until a thousand years later." Adamnan's "Life of Columba" (Dublin, 1857), p. 230.

Seventh Century
Scotland and Ireland
Professor James C. Moffatt, D.D., Professor of Church History at Princeton, says: It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday, the Jewish Shabbath, as a day of rest from labour. They obeyed the fourth commandment literally upon the seventh day of week." "The Church in Scotland," p.140.

Scotland and Ireland
"The Celts used a Latin Bible unlike the Vulgate (R.C.) and kept Saturday as a day of rest, with special religious services on Sunday." Flick, "The Rise of Mediaeval Church," p. 237

ROME Gregory I (AD 590-640)
wrote against "Roman citizens (who) forbid any work being done on the Shabbath day." "Nicene and Post- Nicene Fathers," Second Series, Vol, XIII, p.13, epist. 1

Rome (Pope Gregory I, AD 590 TO 604)
"Gregory, bishop by the grace of God to his well-beloved sons, the Roman citizens: It has come to me that certain men of perverse spirit have disseminated among you things depraved and opposed to the holy faith, so that they forbid anything to be done on the day of the Shabbath. What shall I call them except preachers of anti-Christ?" Epistles, b.13:1
 Pope Gregory I Declared that when anti-Christ should come he would keep Saturday as the Shabbath. "Epistles of Gregory I, "b 13, epistle 1 found in "Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.""Moreover, this same Pope Gregory had issued an official pronouncement against a section of the city of Rome itself because the Christian believers there rested and worshipped on the Shabbath." Same reference.

Eighth Century
Council of Friaul, Italy - AD 791 (Canoon 13)
"We command all Christians to observe the Lord's day to be held not in honour of the past Shabbath, but on account of that holy night of the first of the week called the Lord's day. When speaking of that Shabbath which the Jews observe, the last day of the week, and which also our peasants observe.." Mansi, 13, 851

Persia and Mesopotamia
"The hills of Persia and the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates reechoed their songs of praise. They reaped their harvests and paid their tithes. They repaired to their churches on the Shabbath day for the worship of God." "Realencyclopaedie fur Protestatische and Krche," art. "Nestorianer"; also Yule, "The Book of ser Marco Polo," Vol.2, p.409.

India, China, Persia, etc.
"Widespread and enduring was the observance of the seventh-day Shabbath among the believers of the Church of the East and the St. Thomas Christians of India, who never were connected with Rome. It also was maintained among those bodies which broke off from Rome after the Council of Chalcedon namely, the Abyssinians, the Jacobites, the Maronites, and the Armenians," Schaff-Herzog, The New Enclopadia of Religious Knowledge," art. "Nestorians"; also Realencyclopaedie fur Protestantische Theologie und Kirche," art. "Nestorianer."

Council of Liftinae, Belgium - 745 CE (Attended by Boniface)
"The third allocution of this council warns against the observance of the Shabbath, referring to the decree of the council of Laodicea." Dr. Hefele, Counciliengfesch, 3, 512, sec. 362

China - 781 CE
In 781 CE the famous China Monument was inscribed in marble to tell of the growth of Christianity in China at that time. The inscription, consisting of 763 words, was unearthed in 1625 near the city of Changan and now stands in the "Forest of Tablets," Changan. The following extract from the stone shows that the Shabbath was observed:
 "On the seventh day we offer sacrifices, after having purified our hearts, and received absolution for our sins. This religion, so perfect and so excellent, is difficult to name, but it enlightens darkness by its brilliant precepts." Christianity in China, M. I'Abbe Huc, Vol. I, ch.2, pp. 48, 49

Ninth Century
"Bulgaria in the early season of its evangelization had been taught that no work should be performed on the Shabbath." Responsa Nicolai Papae I and Con-Consulta Bulllllgarorum, Responsum 10, found in Mansi, Sacrorum Concilorum Nova et Amplissima Colectio, Vol.15; p. 406; also Hefele, Conciliengeschicte, Vol.4, sec. 478

(Pope Nicholas I, in answer to letter from Bogaris, ruling prince of Bulgaria.) "Ques. 6-Bathing is allowed on Sunday. Ques. 10-One is to cease from work on Sunday, but not also on the Shabbath." Hefele, 4,346- 352, sec. 478

The Bulgarians had been accustomed to rest on the Shabbath. Pope Nicholas writes against this practice.

(Photuus, Patriarch of Constantinople {in counter- synod that deposed Nicolas}, thus accused Papacy). Against the canons, they induced the Bulgarians to fast on the Shabbath." Photius, vonKard, Hergenrother, 1, 643

[Note: The Papacy had always tried to bring the seventh-day Shabbath into disrepute by insisting that all should fast on that day. In this manner (she sought to turn people towards Sunday, the first day, the day that Rome had adopted.]

Cardinal Hergenrother says that they stood in intimate relation with Emperor Michael II (821-829) and testifies that they observed the Shabbath. Kirchengeschichte, 1, 527

India, Abysinnia
"Widespread and enduring was the observance of the seventh-day Shabbath among the believers of the Church of the East and the St. Thomas Christians of India. It was also maintained by the Abyssinians.

"Pope Nicholas I, in the ninth century, sent the ruling prince of Bulgaria a long document saying in it that one is to cease from work on Sunday, but not on the Shabbath. The head of the Greek Church, offended at the interference of the Papacy, declared the Pope ex-communicated." Truth Triumphant, p. 232

Tenth Century
"They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a Sabbatical manner." A history of Scotland from the Roman Occupation, Vol. I, p.96. Andrew Lang

Church of the East - Kurdistan
"The Nestorians eat no pork and keep the Shabbath. They believe in neither auricular confession nor purgatory." Schaff-Herzog, "The New Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge," art. "Nestorians."

"And because they observed no other day of rest but the Shabbath days, they called them Insabathas, as much as to say, as they observed no Shabbath." Luther's "Fore-Runners" (original spelling), PP. 7, 8

Roman Catholic writers try to evade the apostolic origin of the Waldenses, so as to make it appear that the Roman is the only apostolic church, and that all others are later novelties. And for this reason they try to make out that the Waldenses originated with Peter Waldo of the twelfth century.

Dr. Peter Allix says:
 "Some Protestants, on this occasion, have fallen into the snare that was set for them...It is absolutely false, that these churches were ever found by Peter is a pure forgery." Ancient Church of Piedmont, pp.192, Oxford: 1821

"It is not true, that Waldo gave this name to the inhabitants of the valleys: they were called Waldenses, or Vaudes, before his time, from the valleys in which they dwelt." "Id., p. 182
 On the other hand, he "was called Valdus, or Waldo, because he received his religious notions from the inhabitants of the valleys." History of the Christian Church, William Jones, Vol II, p.2

Eleventh Century
They held that Saturday was properly the Shabbath on which they abstained from work. "Celtic Scotland," Vol. 2, p. 350

"They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a sabbatical manner...These things Margaret abolished." A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation," Vol.1, p. 96.

"It was another custom of theirs to neglect the reverence due to the Lord's day, by devoting themselves to every kind of worldly business upon it, just as they did upon other days. That this was contrary to the law, she (Queen Margaret) proved to them as well by reason as by authority. 'Let us venerate the Lord's day,' said she, 'because of the resurrection of our Lord, which happened upon that day, and let us no longer do servile works upon it; bearing in mind that upon this day we were redeemed from the slavery of the devil. The blessed Pope Gregory affirms the same.'" Life of Saint Margaret, Turgot, p. 49 (British Museum Library)

(Historian Skene commenting upon the work of Queen Margaret) "Her next point was that they did not duly reverence the Lord's day, but in this latter instance they seemed to have followed a custom of which we find traces in the early Church of Ireland, by which they held Saturday to be the Shabbath on which they rested from all their labours." Skene, "Celtic Scotland," Vol.2, p. 349

Scotland and Ireland
"T. Ratcliffe Barnett, in his book on the fervent Catholic queen of Scotland who in 1060 was first to attempt the ruin of Columba's brethren, writes: 'In this matter the Scots had perhaps kept up the traditional usage of the ancient Irish Church which observed Saturday instead of Sunday as the day of rest.'" Barnett, "Margaret of Scotland: Queen and Saint," p.97

Council of Clermont
"During the first crusade, Pope Urban II decreed at the council of Clermont (A.D.1095) that the Shabbath be set aside in honour of the Virgin Mary." History of the Shabbath, p.672

"Because you observe the Shabbath with the Jews and the Lord's Day with us, you seem to imitate with such observance the sect of Nazarenes." Migne, "Patrologia Latina," Vol. 145, p.506; also Hergenroether, "Photius," Vol. 3, p.746. (The Nazarenes were a Christian denomination.)

Greek Church
"The observance of Saturday is, as everyone knows, the subject of a bitter dispute between the Greeks and the Latins." Neale, "A History of the Holy Eastern Church," Vol 1, p. 731. (Referring to the separation of the Greek Church from the Latin in 1054)

Twelveth Century
"Traces of Shabbath-keepers are found in the times of Gregory I, Gregory VII, and in the twelfth century in Lombardy." Strong's Cyclopaedia, 1, 660

"Robinson gives an account of some of the Waldenses of the Alps, who were called Sabbati, Sabbatati, Insabbatati, but more frequently Inzabbatati. "One says they were so named from the Hebrew word Shabbath, because they kept the Saturday for the Lord's day.'" General History of the Baptist Denomination, Vol.II, P. 413

Spain (Alphonse of Aragon)
"Alphonse, king of Aragon, etc., to all archbishopss, bishops and to all others...'We command y;ou that heretics, to wit, Waldenses and Inshabbathi, should be expelled away from the face of God and from all Catholics and ordered to depart from our kingdom.'" Marianse, Praefatio in Lucam Tudensem, found in "Macima Gibliotheca Veterum Patrum," Vol.25, p.190

Hungary, France, England, Italy, Germany
(Referring to the Shabbath- keeping Pasagini) "The spread of heresy at this time is almost incredible. From Gulgaria to the Ebro, from nothern France to the Tiber, everywhere we meet them. Whole countries are infested, like Hungary and southern France; they abound in many other countries, in Germany, in Italy, in the Netherlands and even in England they put forth their efforts." Dr. Hahn, "Gesch. der Ketzer." 1, 13, 14

"Among the documents we have by the same peoples, an explanation of the Ten Commandments dated by Boyer 1120. Observance of the Shabbath by ceasing from worldly labours, is enjoined." Blair, History of the Waldenses, Vol.1, p. 220

"There is much evidence that the Shabbath prevailed in Wales university until AD 1115, when the first Roman bishop was seated at St. David's. The old Welsh Shabbath-keeping churches did not even then altogether bow the knee to Rome, but fled to their hiding places." Lewis, "Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America," Vol.1, p.29

"For twenty years Peter de Bruys stirred southern France. He especialy emphasised a day of worship that was recognized at that time among the Celtic churches of the British Isles, among the Paulicians, and in the great Church of the East namely, the seventh day of the fourth commandment."

The papal author, Bonacursus, wrote the following against the "Pasagini": "Not a few, but many know what are the errors of those who are called Pasaagini...First, they teach that we should obey the Shabbath. Furthermore, to increase their error, they condemn and reject all the church Fathers, and the whole Roman Church." D'Achery, Spicilegium I,f.211-214; Muratory, Antiq. med. aevi.5, f.152, Hahn, 3, 209

Thirteenth Century
"They say that the blessed Pope Sylvester was the Antichrist of whom mention is made in the Epistles of St. Paul as having been the son of perdition.[They also say] that the keeping of the Shabbath ought to take place." Ecclesiastical History of the Ancient Churches of Piedmont," p.169 (by prominent Roman Catholic author writing about Waldenses)

France (Waldenses)
To destroy completely these heretics Pope Innocent III sent Dominican inquisitors into France, and also crusaders, promising "a plenary remission of all sins, to those who took on them the crusade...against the albigenses." Catholic Encyclopaedia, Vol. XII, art. "Raymond VI," p. 670

Waldenses of France
"The inquisitors...[declare] that the sign of a Vaudois, deemed worthy of death, was that he followed Christ and sought to obey the commandments of God." History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages," H.C.Les, vol.1

Thousands of God's people were tortured to death by the Inquisition, buried alive, burned to death, or hacked to pieces by the crusaders. While devastating the city of Biterre the soldiers asked the Catholic leaders how they should know who were heretics; "Slay them all, for the Lord knows who is His." History of the Inquisition, pp. 96

France - King Louis IX, 1229 CE
Published the statute "Cupientes" in which he charges himself to clear southern France from heretics as the Shabbath-keepers were called.

France - King Louis of France
"The heresy of the Vaudois, or poor people of Lyons, is of great antiquity, for some say that it has been continued down ever since the time of Pope Sylvester; and others, ever since that of the delegates." The Roman Inquisitor, Reinerus Sacho, writing about 1230

France -Council Toulouse, 1229 CE
Canons against Shabbath-keepers: "Canon 3.-The lords of the different districts shall have the villas, houses and woods diligently searched, and the hiding-places of the heretics destroyed. "Canon 14 - Lay members are not allowed to possess the books of either the Old or the New Testaments." Hefele, 5, 931, 962

"The Paulicians, Petrobusinas, Pasaginians, Waldenses, Insabbatati were great Shabbath-keeping bodies of Europe down to 1250 A.D."

Dr. Hahn says that if the Pasaginians referred to the 4th Commandment to support the Shabbath, the Roman priests answered, "The Shabbath symbolised the eternal rest of the saints."

"The Mongolian conquest did not injure the Church of the East. (Shabbath-keeping.) On the contrary, a number of the Mongolian princes and a larger number of Mongolian queens were members of this church."

Fourteenth Century
"That we are to worship one only God, who is able to help us, and not the Saints departed; that we ought to keep holy the Shabbath day." Luther's Fore-runners," p. 38

"For centuries evangelical bodies, especially the Waldenses, were called Insabbati because of Shabbath-keeping." Gui, Manueld' Inquisiteur

Bohemia, 1310 CE
(Modern Czechoslovakia) "In 1310, two hundred years before Luther's theses, the Bohemian brethren constituted one fourth of the population of Bohemia, and that they were in touch with the Waldenses who abounded in Austria, Lombardy,. Bohemia, north Germany, Thuringia, Brandenburg, and Moravia. Erasmus pointed out how strictly Bohemian Waldenses kept the seventh day Shabbath." Armitage, "A History of the Baptists," p.313; Cox, "The Literature of the Shabbath Question," vol. 2, pp. 201-202

Then, too, in the "Catechism" that was used during the fourteenth century, the Shabbath commandment read thus; "Thou shalt not forget to keep the seventh day." This is quoted from "Documents and Studies Concerning the History of the Lutheran Catechism in the Nordish Churches," p.89. Christiania 1893

"Also the priests have caused the people to keep Saturdays as Sundays." Theological Periodicals for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Norway, Vol. 1, p.184 Oslo

England, Holland, Bohemia
"We wrote of the Sabbatarians in Bohemia, Transylvania, England and Holland between 1250 and 1600 AD." Truth Triumphant, Wilkinson, p.309

Fifteenth Century
"Erasmus testifies that even as late as about 1500 CE these Bohemians not only kept the seventh day scrupulously, but also were called Sabbatarians." Cox, "The Literature of the Shabbath Question," Vol. 2, pp. 201, 202 "Truth Triumphant," p.264

(Church Council held at Bergin, August 22,1435 CE) "The first matter concerned a keeping holy of Saturday. It had come to the earth of the archbishop that people in different places of the kingdom had ventured the keeping holy of Saturday. It is strictly forbidden-it is stated-in the Church Law, for any one to keep or to adopt holy-days, outside of those which the pope, archbishop, or bishops appoint." The History of the Norwegian Church under Catholicism, R. Keyser, Vol. II, p. 488. Oslo: 1858

Norway, 1435 CE
(Catholic Provincial Council at Bergin) "We are informed that some people in different districts of the kingdom, have adopted and observed Saturday-keeping. It is severely forbidden-in holy church canon-one and all to observe days excepting those which the holy Pope archbishop, or the bishops command. Saturday-keeping must under no circumstances be permitted hereafter further than the church canon commands. Therfore, we counsil all the friends of God throughout all Norway who want to be obedient towards the holy church to let this evil of Saturday- keeping alone; and the rest we forbid under penalty of sever church punishment to keep Saturday holy." Dip. Norveg., 7, 397

Norway, 1436 CE
(Church Conference at Oslo) "It is forbidden under the same penalty to keep Saturday holy by refraining from labour." History of the Norwegian Church, p.401

Waldenses "Louis XII, King of France (1498-1515 CE), being informed by the enemies of the Waldense inhabiting a part of the province of Province, that several heinous crimes were laid to their account, sent the Master of Requests, and a certain doctor of the Sorbonne, to make inquiry into this matter. On their return they reported that they had visited all the parishes, but could not discover any traces of those crimes with which they were charged. On the contrary, they kept the Shabbath day, observed the ordinance of baptism, according to the primitive church, instructed their children in the articles of the Christian faith, and the commandments of God. The King having heard the report of his commissioners, said with an oath that they were better men than himself or his people." History of the Christian Church, Vol. II, pp. 71, 72, third edition. London: 1818

"Separated from the Western world for a thousand years, they were naturally ignorant of many novelties introduced by the councils and decrees of the Lateran. ‘We are Christians, and not idolaters,’ was their expressive reply when required to do homage to the image of the Virgin Mary.'"

Sixteenth Century
"In the reign of Elizabeth, it occurred to many conscientious and independent thinkers (as it previously had done to some Protestants in Bohemia) that the fourth commandment required of them the observance, not of the first, but of the specified 'seventh' day of the week." Chambers' Cyclopaedia, article "Shabbath," Vol. 8, p. 462, 1537

Russia (Council, Moscow, 1593)
"The accused [Shabbath-keepers] were summoned; they openly acknowledged the new faith, and defended the same. The most eminent of them, the secretary of state, Kuritzyn, Ivan Maximow, Kassian, archimandrite of the Fury Monastery of Novgorod, were condemned to death, and burned publicly in cages, at Moscow; Dec. 17,1503." H. Sternberfi, "Geschichte der Juden" (Leipsig, 1873), pp. 117-122

"This zeal for Saturday-keeping continued for a long time: even little things which might strengthen the practice of keeping Saturday were punished." Bishop Anjou, "Svenska Kirkans Historia after Motetthiers, Upsala

Lichenstein Family (estates in Austria, Bohemia, Morovia, Hungary. Lichenstein in the Rhine Valley wasn't their country until the end of the 7th century).
"The Sabbatarians teach that the outward Shabbath, i.e. Saturday, still must be observed, They say that Sunday is the Pope's invention." Refutation of Shabbath, by Wolfgang Capito, published 1599

Bohemia (the Bohemian Brethren)
Dr. R. Cox says: "I find from a passage in Erasmus that at the early period of the Reformation when he wrote, there were Sabbatarians in Bohemia, who not only kept the seventh day, but were said to be...scrupulous in resting on it." Literature of the Shabbath Question, Cox, Vol. II, pp. 201, 202

Historian's List of Churches (16th Century)
"Sabbatarians, so called because they reject the observance of the Lord's day as not commanded in Scripture, they consider the Shabbath alone to be holy, as God rested on that day and commanded to keep it holy and to rest on it." A. Ross

Germany - Dr. Esk (while refuting the Reformers)
"However, the church has transferred the observance from Saturday to Sunday by virtue of her own power, without Scripture." Dr. Esk's "Enchiridion," 1533, pp.78,79

Princes of Lichenstein (Europe)
About the hear 1520 many of these Shabbath-keepers found shelter on the estate of Lord Leonhardt of Lichtensein held to the observance of the true Shabbath." J. N. Andrews, History of the Shabbath, p. 649, ed.

"The famous Jesuit, Francis Xavier, called for the Inquisition, which was set up in Goa, India, in 1560, to check the 'Jewish wickedness' (Shabbath-keeping)." Adeney, "The Greek and Eastern Churches," p.527, 528

Norway - 1544 CE
"Some of you, contrary to the warning, keep Saturday. You ought to be severely punished. Whoever shall be found keeping Saturday, must pay a fine of ten marks." History of King Christian the Third," Niels Krag and S. Stephanius

"Sabatarians now exist in Austria." Luther, "Lectures on Genesis," AD 1523-27

Abysinnia - 1534 CE
(Abyssinian legate at court of Lisbon) "It is not therefore, in imitation of the Jews, but in obedience to Christ and His holy delegates, that we observe the day." Gedde's "Church History of Ethiopia," pp. 87,8

Dr. Martin Luther
"God blessed the Shabbath and sanctified it to Himself. God willed that this command concerning the Shabbath should remain. He willed that on the seventh day the word should be preached." Commentary on Genesis, Vol. 1, pp. 138-140

"Some have suffered torture because they would not rest when others kept Sunday, for they declared it to be the holiday and law of Antichrist." Sebastian Frank (AD 1536)

Finland - Dec. 6, 1554 CE
(King Gustavus Vasa I, of Sweden's letter to the people of Finland) "Some time ago we heard that some people in Finland had fallen into a great error and observed the seventh day, called Saturday." State Library at Helsingfors, Reichsregister, Vom J., 1554, Teil B.B. leaf 1120, pp. 175-180a

"The observance of the Shabbath is a part of the moral law. It has been kept holy since the beginning of the world." Ref. Noted Swiss writer, R Hospinian, 1592

Holland and Germany
Barbara of Thiers, who was executed in 1529, declared: "God has commanded us to rest on the seventh day." Another martyr, Christina Tolingerin, is mentioned thus: "Concerning holy days and Sundays, she said: 'In six days the Lord made the world, on the seventh day he rested. The other holy days have been instituted by popes, cardinals, and archbishops.'" Martyrology of the Churches of Christ, commonly called Baptists, during the era of the Reformation, from the Dutch of T. J. Van Bright, London, 1850,1, pp. 113-4.

Seventeenth Century
England - 1618 CE
"At last for teaching only five days in the week, and resting upon Saturday she was carried to the new prison in Maiden Lane, a place then appointed for the restraint of several other persons of different opinions from the Church of England. Mrs. Traske lay fifteen or sixteen years a prisoner for her opinion about the Saturday Shabbath." Pagitt's "Heresiography." p.196

England - 1668 CE
"Here in England are about nine or ten churches that keep the Shabbath, besides many scattered disciples, who have eminently preserved." Stennet's letters, 1668 and 1670. Cox, Sab., 1, 268

Hunagry, Rumania
"But as they rejected Sunday and rested on the Shabbath, Prince Sigmond Bathory ordered their persecution. Pechi advanced to position of chancellor of state and next in line to throne of Transylvania. He studied his Bible, and composed a number of hymns, mostly in honour of the Shabbath. Pechi was arrested and died in 1640.

Sweden and Finland
"We can trace these opinions over almost the whole extent of Sweden of that day-from Finland and northern Sweden. "In the district of Upsala the farmers kept Saturday in place of Sunday. "About the year 1625 this religious tendency became so pronounced in these countries that not only large numbers of the common people began to keep Saturday as the rest day, but even many priests did the same." History of the Swedish Church, Vol. I, p.256

Muscovite Russian Church
"They solemnize Saturday (the old Shabbath). Samuel Purchase- "His Pilgrims." Vol. I, p. 350

India (Jacobites) - 1625 CE
"They kept Saturday holy. They have solemn service on Saturdays." Pilgrimmes, Part 2, p.1269

America - 1664 CE
"Stephen Mumford, the first Shabbath-keeper in America come from London in 1664." History of the Seventh-day Baptist Gen. Conf. by Jas. Bailey, pp. 237, 238

America - 1671 CE (Seventh-day Baptists)
"Broke from Baptist Church in order to keep Shabbath." See Bailey's History, pp. 9,10

Charles I, 1647 (when querying the Parliament Commissioners) "For it will not be found in Scripture where Saturday is no longer to be kept, or turned into the Sunday wherefore it must be the Church's authority that changed the one and instituted the other." Cox, "Shabbath Laws," p.333

England - John Milton
"It will surely be far safer to observe the seventh day, according to express commandment of God, than on the authority of mere human conjecture to adopt the first." Sab. Lit. 2, 46-54

"Upon the publication of the 'Book of Sports' in 1618 a violent controversy arose among English divines on two points: first, whether the Shabbath of the fourth commandment was in force; and, secondly, on what ground the first day of the week was entitled to be observed as 'the Shabbath.'" Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, art. "Sabbatarians." p.602

Ethiopia - 1604 CE
Jesuits tried to induce the Abyssinian church to accept Roman Catholicism. They influenced King Zadenghel to propose to submit to the Papacy (AD 1604). "Prohibiting all his subjects, upon severe penalties, to observe Saturday any longer." Gedde's "Church History of Ethiopia." p.311, also Gibbon's "Decline and Fall," ch. 47

Bohemia, Moravia, Switzerland, Germany
"one of the counsellors and lords of the court was John Gerendi, head of the Sabbatarians, a people who did not keep Sunday, but Saturday." Lamy, "The History of Socinianism." p. 60

Telegraph Print, Napier
The inscription on the monument over the grave of Dr. Peter Chamberlain, physician to King James and Queen Anne, King Charles I and Queen Katherine says that Dr. Chamberlain was "a Christian keeping the commandment of God and the faith of Jesus, being baptised about the year 1648, and keeping the seventh day for the Shabbath above thirty-two years."

Eighteenth Century
"The Jacobites assembled on the Shabbath day, before the Domical day, in the temple, and kept that day, as do also the Abyssinians as we have seen from the confession of their faith by the Ethiopian king Claudius." Abundacnus, 'Historia Jacobatarum," p. 118-9 (18th Century)

Rumania, 1760 CE (and what is today) Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
"Joseph II's edict of tolerance did not apply to the Sabbatarians, some of whom again lost all of their possessions." Jahrgang 2, 254 "Catholic priests aided by soldiers forcing them to accept Romanism nominally, and compelling the remainder to labour on the Shabbath and to attend church on Sunday, these were the methods employed for two hundred fifty years to turn the Sabbatarians.

Germany - Tennhardt of Nuremberg
"He holds strictly to the doctrine of the Shabbath, because it is one of the ten commandments." Bengel's "Leban und Wirken," Burk, p.579 He himself says: "It cannot be shown that Sunday has taken the place of the Shabbath (P.366). the Lord God has sanctified the last day of the week. Antichrist, on the other hand, has appointed the first day of the week." Ki Auszug aus Tennhardt's "Schriften," P.49 (printed 1712)

Bohemia and Moravia (Today Czechoslovakia)
Their history from 1635 to 1867 is thus described by Adolf Dux: "The condition of the Sabbatarians was dreadful. Their books and writings had to be delivered to the Karlsburg Consistory to becomes the spoils of flames." Aus Ungarn, pp. 289-291. Leipzig, 1850

Holland and Germany
"Dr. Cornelius stated of East Friesland, that when Baptists were numerous, "Sunday and holidays were not observed," (they were Shabbath-keepers). Der Anteil Ostfrieslands and Ref. Muenster," 1852, pp l29, 34 MORAVIA-Count Zinzendorf. In 1738 Zinzendorf wrote of his keeping the Shabbath thus: "That I have employed the Shabbath for rest many years already, and our Sunday for the proclamation of the gospel." Budingsche Sammlung, Sec. 8, p. 224. Leipzig, 1742

America, 1741 CE - Moravian Brethren (after Zinzendorf arrived from Europe)
"As a special instance it deserves to be noticed that he is resolved with the church at Bethlehem to observe the seventh day as rest day. Id., pp. 5, 1421, 1422

But before Zinzendorf and the Moravians at Bethlehem thus began the observance of the Shabbath and prospered, there was a small body of German Shabbath-keepers in Pennsylvania. See Rupp's "History of Religious Denominations in the United States," pp. 109- 123

Nineteenth Century
"But the majority moved to the Crimea and the Caucasus, where they remain true to their doctrine in spite of persecution until this present time. The people call them Subotniki, or Sabbatarians," Sternberg, "Geschichte der Juden in Polen," p.124

"At this time Hung prohibited the use of opium, and even tobacco, and all intoxicating drinks, and the Shabbath was religiously observed." The Ti-Ping Revolution," by Llin-Le, and officer among them, Vol. 1, pp. 36-48, 84

"The seventh day is most religiously and strictly observed. The Taiping Shabbath is kept upon our Saturday." P. 319

"The Taipings when asked why they observed the seventh day Shabbath, replied that it was, first, because the Bible taught it, and, second, because their ancestors observed it as a day of worship." A Critical History of the Shabbath and the Sunday.

India and Persia
"Besides, they maintain the solemn observance of Christian worship throughout our Empire, on the seventh day." Christian Researches in Asia," p.143

"This agitation was not without its effect. Pastor M. A. Sommer began observing the seventh day, and wrote in his church paper. "Indovet Kristendom" No. 5,1875 an impressive article about the true Shabbath. In a letter to Elder John G. Matteson, he says:

"Among the Baptists here in Denmark there is a great agitation regarding the Shabbath commandment..However, I am probably the only preacher in Denmark who stands so near to the Adventists and who for many years has proclaimed Christ's second coming." Advent Tidente," May, 1875

Sweden (Baptists)
"We will now endeavour to show that the sanctification of the Shabbath has its foundation and its origin in a law which God at creation itself established for the whole world, and as a consequence thereof is binding on all men in all ages." Evangelisten (The Evangelist). Stockholm, May 30 to August 15,1863 (organ of the Swedish Baptist Church)

America, 1845 CE
"Thus we see Dan. 7, 25, fulfilled, the little horn changing 'times and laws. 'Therefore it appears to me that all who keep the first day for the Shabbath are Pope's Sunday-keepers and God's Shabbath- breakers." Elder T. M. Preble, Feb. 13, 1845

America (Seventh-day Adventists)
In 1844 Seventh-day Adventists arose and had spread to nearly all the world by the close of the 19th Century. Their name is derived from their teaching of the seventh-day Shabbath and the Advent of Jesus. In 1874 their work was established in Europe, 1885-Australia, 1887-South Africa, 1888-Asia, 1888-South America. Seventh-day Adventists uphold the same Shabbath that Jesus and His followers kept. The sacred Torch of Truth was not extinguished through the long centuries. Adventists are working today in nearly 1000 languages of earth and have over 27,000 churches. Over ten million members around the globe welcome the sacred Shabbath hours.

Twentieth Century
Confessions about Sunday Observance
American Congregationalists: No authority in the New Testament for substitution of the first day for the seventh "The current notion that Christ and His delegates authoritatively substituted the first day for the seventh, is absolutely without any authority in the New Testament." Dr. Lyman Abbott, in the Christian Union, June 26, 1890 Anglican: Nowhere commanded to keep the first day "And where are we told in the Scriptures that we are to keep the first day at all? We are commanded to keep the seventh; but we are nowhere commanded to keep the first day. The reason why we keep the first of the week holy instead of the seventh is for the same reason that we observe many other things, - not because the Bible, but because the church, has enjoined [commanded] it." Isaac Williams, Plain Sermons on the Catechism, Vol. 1, pp 334, 336.

Anglican/Episcopal: The Catholics changed it "We have made the change from the seventh day to the first day, from Saturday to Sunday, on the authority of the one holy, Catholic, Apostolic Church of Christ." Episcopalian Bishop Symour, Why we keep Sunday. Baptist: Sunday Shabbath not in the scriptures "There was and is a commandment to keep holy the Shabbath day, but that Shabbath day was not on Sunday. It will be said, however, and with some show of truimph, that the Shabbath was transferred from the Seventh to the First day of the week, with all its duties, privileges and sanctions. Earnestly desiring information on this subject, which I have studied for many years, I ask, where can the record of such a transaction be found? Not in the New Testament - absolutely not. There is no scriptural evidence of the change of the Shabbath institution from the Seventh to the First day of the week...
  "I wish to say that this Shabbath question, in this aspect of it, is the gravest and most perlexing question connected with Christian institutions which at present claims attention from Christian people; and the only reason that it is not a more disturbing element in Christian thought and in religious discussion is because the Christian world has settled down content on the conviction that some how a transference has taken place at the beginning of Christian history.
  "To me it seems unaccountable that Jesus, during three years' discussion with His disciples, often conversing with them upon the Shabbath question, discussing it in some of its various aspects, freeing it from its false glosses [of Jewish traditions], never alluded to any transference of the day; also, that during forty days of His resurrection life, no such thing was intimated. Nor, so far as we know, did the Spirit, which was given to bring to their remembrance all things whatsoever that He had said unto them, deal with this question. Nor yet did the inspired delegates, in preaching the gospel, founding churches, counseling and instruction those founded, discuss or approach the subject.
  "Of course, I quite well know that Sunday did come into use in early Christian history as a religious day, as we learn from the Christian Fathers and other sources. But what a pity that it comes branded with the mark of paganism, and christened with the name of a sun god, when adopted and sanctioned by the papal apostasy, and bequeathed as a sacred legacy to protestantism!" Dr. Edward Hiscox, author of The Baptist Manual. From a photostatic copy of a notarized statement by Dr. Hiscox.
  "There was never any formal or authoritative change from the Jewish seventh day Shabbath to the Christian first day observance" William Owen Carver, The Lord's Day in One Day p.49

Church of England: No warrant from scripture for the change of the Shabbath from Saturday to Sunday "Neither did he(Jesus), or his disciples, ordain another Shabbath in the place of this, as if they had intended only to shift the day; and to transfer this honor to some other time. Their doctrine and their practise are directly contrary, to so new a fancy. It is true, that in some tract of time, the Church in honor of his resurrection, did set apart that day on the which he rose, to holy exercises: but this upon their own authority, and without warrant from above, that we can hear of; more then the general warrant which God gave his Church, that all things in it be done decently, and in comely order." Dr. Peter Heylyn of the Church of England, quoted in History of the Shabbath, Pt 2, Ch.2, p7

Congregationalist: The Christian Shabbath' [Sunday] is not in the Scripture "The Christian Shabbath' [Sunday] is not in the Scripture, and was not by the primitive [early Christian] church called the Shabbath." Timothy Dwight, Theology, sermon 107, 1818 ed., Vol. IV, p49 [Dwight (1752-1817) was president of Yale University from 1795-1817].

Disciples of Christ: It is all old wives' fables to talk of the 'change of the shabbath.' "If it [the Ten Commandments] yet exist, let us observe it... And if it does not exist, let us abandon a mock observance of another day for it. 'But,' say some, 'it was changed from the seventh to the first day.' Where? when? and by whom? - No, it never was changed, nor could it be, unless creation was to be gone through again: for the reason assigned [in Genesis 2:1-3] must be changed before the observance or respect to the reason, can be changed. It is all old wives' fables to talk of the 'change of the shabbath' from the seventh to the first day. If it be changed, it was that august personage changed it who changes times and laws ex officio, - I think his name is "Doctor Antichrist.'" Alexander Campbell, The Christian Baptist, February 2, 1824, vol 1, no. 7

Episcopal: Bible commandment says the seventh day "The Bible commandment says on the seventh-day thou shalt rest. That is Saturday. Nowhere in the Bible is it laid down that worship should be done on Sunday." Phillip Carrington, quoted in Toronto Daily Star, Oct 26, 1949 [Carrington (1892-), Anglican archbishop of Quebec, spoke the above in a message on this subject delivered to a packed assembly of clergymen. It was widely reported at the time in the news media].

Lutheran: They err in teaching Sunday Shabbath But they err in teaching that Sunday has taken the place of the Old Testament Shabbath and therefore must be kept as the seventh day had to be kept by the children of Israel.....These churches err in their teaching, for scripture has in no way ordained the first day of the week in place of the Shabbath. There is simply no law in the New Testament to that effect" John Theodore Mueller, Shabbath or Sunday, pp.15, 16
  "We have seen how gradually the impression of the Jewish Shabbath faded from the mind of the Christian church, and how completely the newer thought underlying the observance of the first day took possesion of the church. We have seen that the Christian of the first three centuries never confused one with the other, but for a time celebrated both." The Sunday Problem, a study book by the Lutheran Church (1923) p.36
  "They [Roman Catholics] allege the change of the Shabbath into the Lord's day, as it seemeth, to the Decalogue [the ten commandments]; and they have no example more in their mouths than they change of the Shabbath. They will needs have the Church's power to be very great, because it hath dispensed with the precept of the Decalogue." The Augsburg Confession, 1530 A.D. (Lutheran), part 2, art 7, in Philip Schaff, the Creeds of Christiandom, 4th Edition, vol 3, p64 [this important statement was made by the Lutherans and written by Melanchthon, only thirteen years after Luther nailed his theses to the door and began the Reformation].
  "They [Roman Catholics] refer to the Shabbath Day, as having been changed into the Lord's Day, contrary to the Decalogue, as it seems. Neither is there any example whereof they make more than concerning the changing of the Shabbath Day. Great, say they, is the power of the Church, since it has dispensed with one of the Ten commandments!" Augsburg Confession of Faith,art. 28; written by Melanchthon and approved by Martin Luther, 1530; as published in The Book of Concord of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Henry Jacobs, editor (1911), p.63

Methodist: Jesus did not abolish the moral law - no command to keep holy the first day The moral law contained in the Ten Commandments, and enforced by the prophets, He Jesus did not take away. It was not the design of His coming to revoke any part of this. This is a law which can never be broken...Every part of this law must remain in force upon all mankind and in all ages; as not depending either on time or place, or any other circumstances liable to change, but on the nature of man, and their unchangeable relation to each other." John Wesley, Sermons on Several Occasions, Vol. 1, No. 25
  "It is true that there is no positive command for infant baptism. Nor is there any for keeping holy the first day of the week. Many believe that Christ changed the Shabbath. But, from His own words, we see that He came for no such purpose. Those who believe that Jesus changed the Shabbath base it only on a supposition." Amos Binney, Theological Compendium, 1902 edition, pp 180-181, 171 [Binney (1802-1878), Methodist minister and presiding elder, whose Compendium was published for forty years in many languages, also wrote a Methodist New Testament Commentary].
  "Take the matter of sunday. There are indications in the new testament as to how the church came to keep the first day of the week as its day of worship, but there is no passage telling Christians to keep that day or to transfer the Jewish Shabbath to that day." Harris Franklin Rall, Christian Advocate July 2, 1942 pg. 26

Moody Bible Institute: "Shabbath was before Sinai"
  "I honestly believe that this commandment [the Shabbath commandment] is just as binding today as it ever was. I have talked with men who have said that it has been abrogated [abolished], but they have never been able to point to any place in the Bible where God repealed it. When Christ was on earth, He did nothing to set it aside; He freed it from the traces under which the scribes and Pharisees had put it, and gave it its true place. 'The Shabbath was made for man, not man for the Shabbath' [mark 2:27]. It is just as practicable and as necessary for men today as it ever was - in fact, more than ever, because we live in such an intense age.
  "The [Seventh-day] Shabbath was binding in Eden, and it has been in force ever since. This Fourth Commandment [Exodus 20:8-11] begins with the word 'remember,' showing that the Shabbath had already existed when God wrote the law on the tables of stone at Sinai. How can men claim that this one commandment has been done away with when they admit that the other nine are still binding? Dwight. L. Moody, Weighed and Wanting, 1898, pp. 46-47 [D. L. Moody, (1837-1899) was the most famous evangelist of his time, and founder of the Moody Bible Institute].
  "This Fourth is not a commandment for one place, or one time, but for all places and times." D. L. Moody, at San Francisco, Jan. 1st, 1881.

Presbyterian: Sunday kept the Gentiles happy
"Sunday being the first day of which the Gentiles solemnly adored that planet and called it Sunday, partly from its influence on that day especially, and partly in respect to its divine body (as they conceived it) the Christians thought fit to keep the same day and the same name of it, that they might not appear carelessly peevish, and by that means hinder the conversion of the Gentiles, and bring a greater prejudice that might be otherwise taken against the gospel"

T. M. Morer, Dialogues on the Lord's Day Roman Catholic: No such law in the Bible.
  "Nowhere in the bible do we find that Jesus or the delegates ordered that the Shabbath be changed from Saturday to Sunday. We have the commandment of God given to Moses to keep holy the Shabbath day, that is, the seventh day of the week, Saturday. Today, most Christians keep Sunday because it has been revealed to us by the [Roman] church outside the bible." Catholic Virginian, Oct. 3, 1947
  "You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctified." Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers (1917 ed.), pp. 72,73
  "If protestants would follow the Bible, they should worship God on the Shabbath Day. In keeping the Sunday they are following a law of the Catholic Church." Albert Smith, chancellor of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, replying for the cardinal in a letter of Feb. 10, 1920.

Question: "Have you not any other way of proving that the Church has power to institute festivals of precept?"

Answer: "Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with her - she could not have substituted the observance of Sunday, the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday, the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority" Stephen Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism 3rd ed. p. 174

"Question: How prove you that the Church hath power to command feasts and holydays?

Answer: By the very act of changing the Shabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of; and therefore they fondly contradict themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same Church." Henry Tuberville, An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine (1833 approbation), p.58 (Same statement in Manual of Christian Doctrine, ed. by Daniel Ferris [1916 ed.], p.67)

"The Catholic Church,... by virtue of her divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday." The Catholic Mirror, official organ of Cardinal Gibbons, Sept. 23, 1893.

"1. Is Saturday the 7th day according to the Bible and the 10 Commandments?

"I answer yes.

"2. Is Sunday the first day of the week and did the Church change the 7th day, Saturday, for Sunday, the 1st day?

"I answer yes.

"3. Did Christ change the day?

"I answer no!

Faithfully yours,

"J. Cardinal Gibbons"
Gibbons' autograph letter.

Some theologians have held that God likewise directly determined the Sunday as the day of worship in the NEW LAW, that he himself has explicitly substituted sunday for the Shabbath. But this theory is entirely abandoned. It is now commonly held that God simply gave His church the power to set aside whatever day or days she would deem suitable as holy days. The church chose sunday, the first day of the week, and in the course of time added other days as holy days." John Laux A Course in Religion for Catholic High Schools and Academies 1936, vol.1 p.51

"Question: Which is the Shabbath day?

Answer: Saturday is the Shabbath day.

Question: Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?

Answer: We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday." Peter Geiermann, The Convert's Catechism of Catholic Doctrine (1946 ed.), p.50. Geiermann received the "apostolic blessing" of Pope Pius X on his labors, January 25, 1910.

"The Church changed the observance of the Shabbath to Sunday by right of the divine, infallible authority given to her by her Founder, Jesus Christ. The Protestant, claiming the Bible to be the only guide of faith, has no warrant for observing Sunday. In this matter the Seventh Day Adventist is the only consistent Protestant. The Catholic Universe Bulletin, Aug. 14, 1942, p.4 "The observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the [Catholic] church." Monsignor Louis Segur, Plain Talk About the Protestantism of Today (1868), p. 213

Related articles which you may find to be of interest.

The Lost Shabbath?
Lunar Shabbath Refuted by Scripture
Rome's Challenge
The Shabbath. Saturday?
The Shabbath Day of Yahuwah
When Does the Shabbath Start?
True Shabbath in the Languages of the World
Shabbath References in Scripture
Week Chart of the Shabbath

C.F. Castleberry